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Janata Dal (United)

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Janata Dal (United)
PresidentRamchandra Prasad Singh
Lok Sabha leaderLalan Singh
Rajya Sabha leaderRamchandra Prasad Singh
FounderGeorge FernandesNitish KumarSharad Yadav
Founded30 October 2003 (17 years ago)
Merger ofSamata PartyLok ShaktiJanata Dal
Split fromJanata Dal
Headquarters7, Jantar Mantar Road, New Delhi, India-110001
NewspaperJD(U) Sandesh
Integral humanism[2]
Political positionCentre-left[2]
ECI StatusBihar (State Party)Arunchal Pradesh (State Party)
AllianceNational Democratic Alliance(since 2003 except 2013 – 2017-present)Mahagathbandhan(2015 – 2017)
Seats in Lok Sabha16 / 543
Seats in Rajya Sabha5 / 245
Seats in showIndian states
Number of states and union territories in government2 / 31
Election symbol
Politics of IndiaPolitical partiesElections

Janata Dal (United) (“People’s Party (United)”) abbreviated as JD(U) is a centre-left Indian political party with political presence mainly in eastern and north-eastern India.[2] JD(U) is recognised as a state party in the states of Bihar and Arunachal Pradesh and is a part of government in Bihar. JD(U) heads the government in Bihar and has remained the second largest party in Arunanchal Pradesh.[3][4][5] JD(U) won 16 seats in the 2019 Indian general election, making it the seventh largest party in the Lok Sabha. The party operates on the ideologies of socialismsecularism and integral humanism.[2]

The Janata Dal (United) was formed with the merger of the Sharad Yadav faction of the Janata Dal, the Lok Shakti Party and the Samta Party on 30 October 2003. Janata Dal (United)’s party mentor and patron is the veteran socialist leader George Fernandes.[6] JD(U) has been a part of the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) since its formation except from June 2013 to August 2017.[7][8]




Posters of Janta Dal (United) near its headquarter, at Bir Chand Patel Path, Patna.

The Janata Dal (United)’s origins go back to before the 1999 General Election. A faction led by then Chief Minister of Karnataka J. H. Patel had lent support to the National Democratic Alliance, leading to the split in the Janata Dal leading to the formation of Janata Dal (Secular) under H. D. Deve Gowda, who wanted to remain equidistant from both national parties; and Janata Dal under Sharad Yadav was called Janata Dal (United).[9]

The Janata Dal (United) was formed with the merger of the Sharad Yadav faction of the Janata Dal, the Lok Shakti and the Samata Party.[10] On 30 October 2003, the Samata Party led by George Fernandes and Nitish Kumar merged with the Janata Dal. The merged entity was called Janata Dal (United) with the arrow symbol of Janata Dal (United) and the green and white flag of the Samata Party.[6] The uniting force is believed to be common opposition to Rashtriya Janata Dal in Bihar especially after the Rashtriya Janata Dal welcomed Samata Party rebels like Raghunath Jha into the party.

In NDA[edit]

JD(U) joined NDA and along with its alliance partner, the BJP defeated the RJD-led UPA government in Bihar in November 2005. New government was headed by JD(U) leader, Nitish Kumar and NDA continued to govern state. The alliance contested 2009 Indian general election and won 32 seats. BJP won 12 while JD(U) won 20.[11] JD(U) won 115 and BJP won 91 seats in 2010 Bihar Legislative Assembly election. Thus together holding 206 seats in 243 member Bihar Legislative Assembly.

Out of NDA[edit]

JD(U) broke its 17 years old alliance with the BJP in Bihar in protest against the elevation of Narendra Modi as ahead of the election campaign committee of BJP for 2014 Indian general election. JD(U) President Sharad Yadav and then Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar announced their end of coalition at a press conference on 16 June 2013, exactly a week after Narendra Modi was made the BJP’s campaign committee chairman, who was later made the prime ministerial candidate of NDA. Just after this split, Sharad Yadav relinquished his position as the NDA convenor.

The JD(U) contested the election in Bihar in an alliance with the Communist Party of India but they won only two seats out of total forty seats of Bihar while the BJP-LJP alliance won 31 seats.[11][12][13] Following poor performance in election, Nitish Kumar resigned as Chief Minister of Bihar and Jitan Ram Manjhi sworn in as a new Chief Minister. When the trust vote was demanded by the BJP to prove majority in Bihar Legislative Assembly, the RJD supported the JD(U) in the assembly on 23 May 2014 to pass the majority mark.[14]

The Mahagathbandhan (grand alliance)[edit]

On 29 December 2014, Kerala-based Socialist Janata (Democratic) merged with the JD(U) with its leader M.P. Veerendra Kumar accepting the party flag from JD(U) leader Nitish Kumar. This was an important milestone in bringing a pan-Indian appeal to the JD(U) which is largely limited to the state of Bihar[15]

On 14 April 2015, the JD(U), Janata Dal (Secular)Rashtriya Janata Dal, the Indian National Lok DalSamajwadi Party, and Samajwadi Janata Party announced that they would merge into a new national Janata Parivar alliance in order to oppose the BJP, thus leaving the UPA but this could not happen for some reasons and then the Samajwadi party was offered 3 seats out of 243 assembly seats in Bihar elections which caused it to leave the alliance and fight separately.[16] On 9 May, MLA Jitan Ram Manjhi was expelled from the JD(U) and founded the Hindustani Awam Morcha along with 17 other dissent JD(U) MLAs.[17]

In the 2015 Bihar Legislative Assembly election JD(U) contested the election in an alliance with the RJD and Congress. It won 71 seats out of the 101 seats it contested and the alliance won 178 seats out the 243 seats in the assembly. Subsequently, Nitish Kumar again became the Chief Minister of Bihar.

In the biennial elections to the Rajya Sabha held in March 2016, the ruling UDF of Kerala state gave one seat to JD(U) Kerala State Unit President M.P. Veerendra Kumar. In spite of having just 2 MLAs in the Legislative Assembly, the Congress gave a berth to its ally.[18]

Alliance with NDA[edit]

On 26 July 2017 5 pm, Nitish Kumar tendered his resignation as Chief Minister of Bihar, ending 20-month-old Mahgathbandhan (grand alliance) rule. The next day on 27 July 2017 10 am he again took oath as Chief Minister of Bihar with the support of BJP. Same day evening, Kerala JD(U) chief M.P. Veerendra Kumar announced the split of Kerala unit of the JD(U) from the party, due to Nitish Kumar led Bihar unit joined hands with the BJP.[19] On 28 July 2017, new NDA government won trust vote in Bihar assembly by 131 votes in favour and 108 against, four legislators did not vote.[20]

2020 Assembly elections and aftermath[edit]

The JD(U), just like its parent Samata Party had the core support of Kushwaha and Kurmi caste, which emanated from the great rally organised in 1993 at Gandhi MaidanPatna. In 2020 Assembly elections the party performed badly, with its seats in Bihar Legislative Assembly reduced to 43 from 75. The breakaway of the faction led by Upendra Kushwaha, who founded Rashtriya Lok Samata Party was recognised as one of the principal reason behind reduction in support base of the party in many constituencies. In a bid to retain its support amongst its core vote base, the party made several organisational changes like appointing Ramchandra Prasad Singh as national president of the party and Umesh Kushwaha as the state president. Meanwhile, it also tried to merge the Upendra Kushwaha led RLSP, which was formed as a result of split in 2013. Immediately after the merger Upendra Kushwaha was made president of parliamentary board of the party.[21][22]

Electoral Performance[edit]

Lok Sabha Elections[edit]

Lok Sabha TermIndian
General Election
Votes Polled% of
% of votes in
seats contested
State (seats)Ref.
13th Lok Sabha199960211,12,82,0843.1028.01Bihar (18)
Karnataka (3)
14th Lok Sabha200473891,44,9632.53Bihar (6) Lakshadweep(1) Uttar Pradesh(1)
15th Lok Sabha2009272059,36,786Bihar (20)
16th Lok Sabha201493259,92,2811.08Bihar (2)
17th Lok Sabha20192416Bihar(16)[1]

Bihar Vidhan Sabha[edit]

Vidhan Sabha TermGeneral ElectionSeats
Votes Polled% of
% of votes in
seats contested

Arunachal Pradesh Vidhan Sabha[edit]

Vidhan Sabha termGeneral ElectionSeats
Votes Polled% of
% of votes in
seats contested
7th201914761,3249.89[citation needed]

Prominent members[edit]

List of Chief Ministers[edit]

Chief Ministers of Bihar[edit]

NoNameConstituencyTerm of officeTenure lengthAssembly
1Nitish KumarMLC24 November 200526 November 20105 years, 2 days14th
Nitish KumarMLC26 November 201020 May 20143 years, 175 days15th
2Jitan Ram ManjhiMakhdumpur20 May 201422 February 2015278 days15th
(1)Nitish KumarMLC22 February 201520 November 2015271 days15th
Nitish KumarMLC20 November 201526 July 20171 year, 248 days16th
Nitish KumarMLC26 July 201716 November 20203 years, 113 days16th
Nitish KumarMLC16 November 2020incumbent201 days17th

National President[edit]


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  2. Jump up to:a b c d About Janta Dal United (JDU). “Janta Dal United (JD(U)) – Party History, Symbol, Founders, Election Results and News”. Elections.in. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
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  5. ^ Anand Patel (29 May 2019). “JDU eyes assembly polls to get national party status”India Today. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
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  8. ^ “Nitish Kumar-led JD(U) passes resolution to join NDA”The Times of India. 19 August 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  9. ^ Samata Party breaks away from JD (U)
  10. ^ Menon, Paravathi (23 April 2004). “Janata Parivar’s home base”Frontline Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 January 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
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  12. ^ “General Election to Loksabha Trend and Result 2014”Election Commission of India. 16 May 2014. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  13. ^ “JD(U) severs ties with BJP on Modi issue”The Hindu. 16 June 2013. Archived from the original on 31 May 2014.
  14. ^ “Lalu Yadav’s Party to Support Nitish Kumar’s JD (U) In Bihar Floor Test”. NDTV. 22 May 2015. Archived from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  15. ^ “Nitish Kumar hails SJD’s merger with JD-U in Kerala”. indiatoday.in. 29 December 2014. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016.
  16. ^ “‘Janata Parivar’ formalised, Mulayam Singh named chief of new party”. Zee News. 15 April 2015. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017.
  17. ^ “Manjhi launches HAM as new political party”The Times of India. TNN. 9 May 2015. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015.
  18. ^ “Congress, JD(U) to share Rajya Sabha seats; Antony may be renominated”The Hindu. 26 February 2016. Archived from the original on 11 May 2018.
  19. ^ Staff, Scroll (27 July 2017). “‘Will fight fascist forces’: Kerala JD(U) splits from party after Nitish Kumar allies with the BJP”Scroll.inArchived from the original on 11 May 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  20. ^ “Bihar Assembly trust vote LIVE updates: CM Nitish Kumar wins floor test with 131 votes”The Indian Express. 28 July 2017. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  21. ^ “In RLSP merger, a Nitish message to BJP as he rebuilds ‘Luv-Kush’ alliance with Kushwaha”ThePrint. Retrieved 15 March 2021.
  22. ^ “Former MLA Umesh Kushwaha appointed Bihar JD(U) president”Indian Express. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  23. ^ “Meet the backroom boys in the battle for Bihar”Archived from the original on 6 April 2017.
  24. Jump up to:a b “पूर्व मंत्री रामसेवक सिंह होंगे JDU के नए प्रदेश अध्यक्ष, लव-कुश की जोड़ी पर नीतीश ने जताया भरोसा”ABP News. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
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  27. ^ “The Secretary General”. 23 September 2010. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010.
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  30. ^ “Nitish confidante Vijay Chaudhary is new Bihar Speaker”Archived from the original on 6 April 2017.
  31. ^ “Unopposed, Bashishtha Narayan Singh Re-Elected JD(U) Bihar Unit President”Archived from the original on 6 April 2017.
  32. ^ “Nitish Kumar’s Bihar team: 7 Masters, 9 graduates and 12 who went to school”. 22 November 2015. Archived from the original on 5 December 2015.

External links[edit]

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